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Bronze Civilization

Bronze Civilization The Collapse of Mycenaean Palatial Civilization and the Coming of the Dorians

Die Bronzezeit ist die Periode in der Geschichte der Menschheit, in der Metallgegenstände vorherrschend aus Bronze hergestellt wurden. Diese Epoche umfasst in Mitteleuropa etwa den Zeitraum von bis v. Chr. What would a Bronze-Age world system look like? Relations between temperate Europe and the Mediterranean in later prehistory - Volume 1 Issue 2 - Andrew. Connected Histories: the Dynamics of Bronze Age Interaction and Trade –​ bc - Volume 81 - Kristian Kristiansen, Paulina Suchowska-Ducke. The Bronze Age: " Bronze & Ancient Civilizations " | Edited by Paul F. Kisak | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und. Origins of the Bronze Age Oasis Civilization in Central Asia (BULLETIN (​AMERICAN SCHOOL OF PREHISTORIC RESEARCH)) | Fredrik Talmage Hiebert.

Bronze Civilization

The deposition of huge amounts of copper and bronze items is one of the major changes in ritual which distinguishes the European Bronze. Pala (cuneiform pa-la-a) was a Bronze Age country in Northern Anatolia. Nothing more is known about Pala than its native language, which is the Palaic. The Bronze Age: " Bronze & Ancient Civilizations " | Edited by Paul F. Kisak | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und. Near East Europe India China. At its peak, the Assyrian Empire stretched from modern-day Iraq in the east to Turkey in the west and Egypt in the south. The rock carvings have been dated through comparison with depicted artifacts. The old Syrian period was dominated by the Eblaite first kingdomNagar and the Online Slot Us second kingdom. However, Fb Apk App site features may suddenly stop working and leave you with a severely degraded experience. The deposition of huge amounts of copper and bronze items is one of the major changes in ritual which distinguishes the European Bronze. PDF | White and Hamilton (J World Prehist –97, ) have proposed a model for the origin of the Southeast Asian Bronze Age founded. Bronze Age tells, tell-like and mound-like settlements in the Carpathian Basin. 3 RAPPAPORT , 4 ELIADE , 15–. Dickinson, The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age: Continuity and Change between the Twelfth and Eighth Centuries BC (London/New York ), especially. Apr 8, - Climate change may have contributed to the decline of a city-​dwelling civilization in Pakistan and India years ago, according to new research. Jones eds. The second possibility is the territory Game Of Thrones Onine was called Blaene in antiquity. Download as PDF Printable version. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Heftner and K. Deger-Jalkotzy and I. Nothing more is known about Pala than Belote native language, which is the Palaic language palaumniliand its native religion. Drews, The Coming of the Greeks Princeton Gitin, A. Olshausen and H. Evidence of Bronzes and Changes in Warfare H. Jones eds. Deger-Jalkotzy and Valve Umsatz. Cazzella, M. Climatic and Other Kostenlose Wimmelbildspiele Download Theories P. Peiser, T. Karageorghis ed. Stern eds. Carpenter, Discontinuity in Greek Civilization Cambridge Coulson Volos Green, A. Laffineur and W-D.

Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Iranian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it.

This corresponds to level IV at Namazga-Tepe. Altyndepe was a major center even then. Pottery was wheel-turned.

Grapes were grown. The height of this urban development was reached in the Middle Bronze Age c. The Kulli culture , [19] [20] similar to those of the Indus Valley Civilisation , was located in southern Balochistan Gedrosia c.

Agriculture was the economic base of these people. At several places, dams were found, providing evidence for a highly developed water management system.

Konar Sandal is associated with the hypothesized " Jiroft culture ", a 3rd-millennium-BC culture postulated based on a collection of artifacts confiscated in Old Syrian; corresponding to the Middle Bronze.

Middle Syrian; corresponding to the Late Bronze. The term Neo-Syria is used to designate the early Iron Age.

The old Syrian period was dominated by the Eblaite first kingdom , Nagar and the Mariote second kingdom.

The Akkadian conquered large areas of the Levant and were followed by the Amorite kingdoms , c. The earliest known Ugaritic contact with Egypt and the first exact dating of Ugaritic civilization comes from a carnelian bead identified with the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Senusret I, — BC.

However, it is unclear at what time these monuments got to Ugarit. In the Amarna letters , messages from Ugarit c. The Mitanni was a loosely organized state in northern Syria and south-east Anatolia from c.

Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class that governed a predominantly Hurrian population, Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Kassite Babylon created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia.

At its beginning, Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. However, with the ascent of the Hittite empire, Mitanni and Egypt allied to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination.

At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, it had outposts centered on its capital, Washukanni , which archaeologists have located on the headwaters of the Khabur River.

Eventually, Mitanni succumbed to Hittite, and later Assyrian attacks, and was reduced to a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. The Israelites were an ancient Semitic-speaking people of the Ancient Near East who inhabited part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods 15th to 6th centuries BC , [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] and lived in the region in smaller numbers after the fall of the monarchy.

The name "Israel" first appears c. Large groups migrated to Mesopotamia, where they intermingled with the native Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian population.

The Aramaeans never had a unified empire; they were divided into independent kingdoms all across the Near East.

After the Bronze Age collapse, their political influence was confined to many Syro-Hittite states, which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire by the 8th century BC.

Instead, a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people.

The Akkadian Empire — BC became the dominant power in the region, and after its fall the Sumerians enjoyed a renaissance with the Neo-Sumerian Empire.

Assyria was extant from as early as the 25th century BC, and became a regional power with the Old Assyrian Empire c.

The earliest mention of Babylon then a small administrative town appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC. The Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC.

Over years later, it briefly took over the other city-states and formed the short-lived First Babylonian Empire during what is also called the Old Babylonian Period.

Akkad, Assyria, and Babylonia all used the written East Semitic Akkadian language for official use and as a spoken language. By that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use in Assyria and Babylonia, and would remain so until the 1st century AD.

The Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in later Assyrian and Babylonian culture, even though Babylonia unlike the more militarily powerful Assyria itself was founded by non-native Amorites and often ruled by other non-indigenous peoples, such as Kassites , Arameans and Chaldeans , as well as its Assyrian neighbors.

Its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi The Altai Mountains in what is now southern Russia and central Mongolia have been identified as the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon.

In China, the earliest bronze artifacts have been found in the Majiayao culture site between and BC. The term "Bronze Age" has been transferred to the archaeology of China from that of Western Eurasia, and there is no consensus or universally used convention delimiting the "Bronze Age" in the context of Chinese prehistory.

By convention, the "Early Bronze Age" in China is sometimes taken as equivalent to the " Shang dynasty " period of Chinese prehistory 16th to 11th centuries BC , [37] and the "Later Bronze Age" as equivalent to the " Zhou dynasty " period 11th to 3rd centuries BC, from the 5th century, also dubbed " Iron Age " , although there is an argument to be made that the "Bronze Age" proper never ended in China, as there is no recognizable transition to an "Iron Age".

Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou Wade—Giles : Erh-li-t'ou period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty.

The widespread use of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture dates to significantly later, probably due to Western influence.

While there may be a reason to believe that bronze work developed inside China separately from outside influence, [43] the discovery of Europoid mummies in Xinjiang suggests a possible route of transmission from the West beginning in the early second millennium BC.

A few human mummies alone cannot provide sufficient explanation of metallurgy transmission. Furthermore, the oldest bronze objects found in China so far were discovered at the Majiayao site in Gansu rather than Xinjiang [45].

While some direct information about the Shang dynasty comes from Shang-era inscriptions on bronze artifacts, most comes from oracle bones — turtle shells, cattle scapulae, or other bones — which bear glyphs that form the first significant corpus of recorded Chinese characters.

Iron is found from the Zhou dynasty , but its use is minimal. Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests knowledge of iron smelting, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this.

White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty BC " and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels through the Later Han period , or to BC [ sic?

The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or "ritual bronzes" , which are more elaborate versions in precious materials of everyday vessels, as well as tools and weapons.

Examples are the numerous large sacrificial tripods known as dings in Chinese; there are many other distinct shapes. Surviving identified Chinese ritual bronzes tend to be highly decorated, often with the taotie motif, which involves highly stylized animal faces.

These appear in three main motif types: those of demons, of symbolic animals, and abstract symbols.

The bronzes of the Western Zhou dynasty document large portions of history not found in the extant texts that were often composed by persons of varying rank and possibly even social class.

Further, the medium of cast bronze lends the record they preserve a permanence not enjoyed by manuscripts.

Bronze artifacts from Daegok-ri, Hwasun , Korea. The beginning of the Bronze Age on the peninsula is around — BC. The Mumun pottery period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period, but especially — BC.

The Mumun period is known for the origins of intensive agriculture and complex societies in both the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago.

The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production c. BC after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artifacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula c.

The bronze daggers lent prestige and authority to the personages who wielded and were buried with them in high-status megalithic burials at south-coastal centers such as the Igeum-dong site.

Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until Bronze and iron smelting techniques spread to the Japanese archipelago through contact with other ancient East Asian civilizations, particularly immigration and trade from the Korean peninsula and ancient Mainland China.

Iron was mainly used for agricultural and other tools, whereas ritual and ceremonial artifacts were mainly made of bronze.

Inhabitants of the Indus Valley, the Harappans , developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. The Late Harappan culture, which dates from — BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately.

It has been claimed that a 6, year old copper amulet manufactured in Mehrgarh in the shape of wheel spoke is the earliest example of lost wax casting in the world.

Dating is still currently broad — BC. Ban Chiang, however, is the most thoroughly documented site while having the clearest evidence of metallurgy when it comes to Southeast Asia.

With a rough date range of late 3rd millennium BC to the first millennium AD, this site alone has various artifacts such as burial pottery dating from — BC , fragments of Bronze, copper-base bangles, and much more.

What's interesting about this site, however, isn't just the old age of the artifacts but the fact that this technology suggested on-site casting from the very beginning.

The on-site casting supports the theory that Bronze was first introduced in Southeast Asia as fully developed which therefore shows that Bronze was innovated from a different country.

These relate to the prehistoric Dong Son Culture of Vietnam. Archaeological research in Northern Vietnam indicates an increase in rates of infectious disease following the advent of metallurgy; skeletal fragments in sites dating to the early and mid-Bronze Age evidence a greater proportion of lesions than in sites of earlier periods.

The other one is decreased levels of immunocompetence in the Metal age due to changes in the diet caused by agriculture. The last is that there may have been an emergence of infectious disease in the Da But the period that evolved into a more virulent form in the metal period.

The production of complex tin bronzes lasted for c. The authors reported that evidence for the production of such complex bronzes disappears at the end of the 5th millennium coinciding with the "collapse of large cultural complexes in north-eastern Bulgaria and Thrace in the late fifth millennium BC".

Tin bronzes using cassiterite tin would be reintroduced to the area again some years later. The Aegean Bronze Age began around BC, when civilizations first established a far-ranging trade network.

This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus , where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects were then exported far and wide and supported the trade.

Isotopic analysis of tin in some Mediterranean bronze artifacts suggests that they may have originated from Great Britain. Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time and reached a peak of skill not exceeded except perhaps by Polynesian sailors until when the invention of the chronometer enabled the precise determination of longitude.

The Minoan civilization based in Knossos on the island of Crete appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade.

Illyrians are also believed to have roots in the early Bronze Age. Ancient empires valued luxury goods in contrast to staple foods , leading to famine.

Bronze Age collapse theories have described aspects of the end of the Bronze Age in this region. At the end of the Bronze Age in the Aegean region, the Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy.

This would indicate that the trade network may have failed, preventing the trade that would previously have relieved such famines and prevented illness caused by malnutrition.

It is also known that in this era the breadbasket of the Minoan empire, the area north of the Black Sea , also suddenly lost much of its population, and thus probably some capacity to cultivate crops.

The Aegean collapse has been attributed to the exhaustion of the Cypriot forests causing the end of the bronze trade. The Aegean collapse has also been attributed to the fact that as iron tools became more common, the main justification for the tin trade ended, and that trade network ceased to function as it did formerly.

The Thera eruption occurred c. Speculation includes that a tsunami from Thera more commonly known today as Santorini destroyed Cretan cities.

If the eruption occurred in the late 17th century BC as most chronologists now think then its immediate effects belong to the Middle to Late Bronze Age transition, and not to the end of the Late Bronze Age, but it could have triggered the instability that led to the collapse first of Knossos and then of Bronze Age society overall.

If this expertise was concentrated in Crete, then the Mycenaeans may have made political and commercial mistakes in administering the Cretan empire.

Archaeological findings, including some on the island of Thera, suggest that the center of the Minoan civilization at the time of the eruption was actually on Thera rather than on Crete.

A weakened political entity with a reduced economic and military capability and fabled riches would have then been more vulnerable to conquest.

Indeed, the Santorini eruption is usually dated to c. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture.

All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age — BC Tumulus culture , which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli barrows.

In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture , followed by the Otomani and Gyulavarsand cultures.

Important sites include:. The Apennine culture also called Italian Bronze Age is a technology complex of central and southern Italy spanning the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age proper.

The Camuni were an ancient people of uncertain origin according to Pliny the Elder , they were Euganei ; according to Strabo , they were Rhaetians who lived in Val Camonica — in what is now northern Lombardy — during the Iron Age , although human groups of hunters, shepherds and farmers are known to have lived in the area since the Neolithic.

They take their name from the characteristic Nuragic towers, which evolved from the pre-existing megalithic culture, which built dolmens and menhirs.

The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe.

Their effective use is still debated: some scholars considered them as monumental tombs, others as Houses of the Giants , other as fortresses, ovens for metal fusion, prisons or, finally, temples for a solar cult.

From this region, they reached Malta island and other countries of Mediterranean basin. The Terramare was an early Indo-European civilization in the area of what is now Pianura Padana northern Italy before the arrival of the Celts and in other parts of Europe.

They lived in square villages of wooden stilt houses. These villages were built on land, but generally near a stream, with roads that crossed each other at right angles.

The whole complex denoted the nature of a fortified settlement. Terramare was widespread in the Pianura Padana especially along the Panaro river, between Modena and Bologna and in the rest of Europe.

It lasted for more than a millennium, from the 15th century BC until the Roman conquest in the 3rd century BC. It takes its name from the fortified boroughs Castellieri , Friulian : cjastelir that characterized the culture.

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Bronze Civilization Video

The End of Civilization (In the Bronze Age): Crash Course World History 211

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Disease or Epidemic L. Local Circumstances: Thebes A. Pai Gow Poker, T. Carpenter, Discontinuity in Greek Civilization Cambridge Sherratt eds. Hänsel ed. Dakouri-Hild and S. Littauer and J. CardarelliA.

Bronze Civilization Video

Bronze Age collapse

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Additionally, the climate was deteriorating; where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, forcing the population away from easily defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys.

Large livestock farms developed in the lowlands and appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances.

Devon and Cornwall were major sources of tin for much of western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales.

Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent. The burial of the dead which, until this period, had usually been communal became more individual.

For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow housed the dead, Early Bronze Age people buried their dead in individual barrows also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as tumuli , or sometimes in cists covered with cairns.

The greatest quantities of bronze objects in England were discovered in East Cambridgeshire , where the most important finds were recovered in Isleham more than pieces.

One copper mine at Great Orme in North Wales, extended to a depth of 70 meters. The identifiable sherds from over mould fragments included a perfect fit of the hilt of a sword in the Wilburton style held in Somerset County Museum.

The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced around BC when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork.

The preceding period is known as the Copper Age and is characterised by the production of flat axes , daggers , halberds and awls in copper.

Ireland is also known for a relatively large number of Early Bronze Age burials. One of the characteristic types of artifact of the Early Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe.

There are five main types of flat axes: Lough Ravel c. Succeeding the Late Neolithic culture, its ethnic and linguistic affinities are unknown in the absence of written sources.

It is followed by the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Even though Northern European Bronze Age cultures were relatively late, and came into existence via trade, sites present rich and well-preserved objects made of wool, wood and imported Central European bronze and gold.

Many rock carvings depict ships, and the large stone burial monuments known as stone ships suggest that shipping played an important role.

Thousands of rock carvings depict ships, most probably representing sewn plank built canoes for warfare, fishing, and trade.

These may have a history as far back as the neolithic period and continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as shown by the Hjortspring boat.

There are many mounds and rock carving sites from the period. Numerous artifacts of bronze and gold are found. No written language existed in the Nordic countries during the Bronze Age.

The rock carvings have been dated through comparison with depicted artifacts. Arsenical bronze artifacts of the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus have been dated around the 4th millennium BC.

The Catacomb culture , c. It is a successor to the Yamnaya and the Poltavka culture. Iron and copper smelting appeared around the same time in most parts of Africa.

Evidence for iron smelting appears earlier or at the same time as copper smelting in Nigeria c. There is a longstanding debate about whether the development of both copper and iron metallurgy were independently developed in sub-Saharan Africa or were introduced from the outside across the Sahara Desert from North Africa or the Indian Ocean.

Copper smelting took place in West Africa prior to the appearance of iron smelting in the region. Evidence for copper smelting furnaces was found near Agadez , Niger that has been dated as early as BC.

The Moche civilization of South America independently discovered and developed bronze smelting. Trade and industry played a major role in the development of the ancient Bronze Age civilizations.

With artifacts of the Indus Valley Civilization being found in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt , it is clear that these civilizations were not only in touch with each other but also trading with each other.

Early long-distance trade was limited almost exclusively to luxury goods like spices, textiles and precious metals. Not only did this make cities with ample amounts of these products extremely rich but also led to an intermingling of cultures for the first time in history.

Trade routes were not only over land but also over water. The first and most extensive trade routes were over rivers such as the Nile , the Tigris and the Euphrates which led to growth of cities on the banks of these rivers.

The domestication of camels at a later time also helped encourage the use of trade routes over land, linking the Indus Valley with the Mediterranean.

This further led to towns sprouting up in numbers anywhere and everywhere there was a pit-stop or caravan-to-ship port.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Bronze age. For other uses, see Bronze Age disambiguation.

Prehistoric period and age studied in archaeology, part of the Holocene Epoch. Homo Homo erectus. Epipaleolithic Mesolithic. Near East Europe India China.

Earliest records Protohistory. Early Late Contemporary. Main article: Ancient Near East. Main article: Bronze Age Anatolia. Main article: Ancient Egypt.

Further information: Iranian Plateau. Main article: Bronze Age Levant. Main article: Ancient Mesopotamia. Main article: Bactria—Margiana Archaeological Complex.

Main article: Seima-Turbino phenomenon. Main articles: Gojoseon and Mumun Pottery Period. Main article: Yayoi period.

Main article: Indus Valley civilization. Main article: Dong Son culture. Main article: Bronze Age in Europe. Main article: Aegean civilization. Main article: Atlantic Bronze Age.

Main article: Bronze Age Britain. See also: Atlantic Bronze Age. Main article: Nordic Bronze Age. See also: Copper metallurgy in Africa.

JHU Press. Retrieved on 28 July However, the Maykop culture only had arsenical bronze. Other regions developed bronze and its associated technology at different periods.

Dictionary of the ancient Near East. The Ancient Near East, c. Quote: "First coined in by the French Egyptologist G.

The use of quotation marks in association with the term "Sea Peoples" in our title is intended to draw attention to the problematic nature of this commonly used term.

It is noteworthy that the designation "of the sea" appears only concerning the Sherden, Shekelesh, and Eqwesh.

Subsequently, this term was applied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional ethnonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in their earliest appearance as invaders from the north during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses Ill see, e.

Henceforth the term Sea Peoples will appear without quotation marks. Yet in the inscriptions themselves, such a migration nowhere appears. After reviewing what the Egyptian texts have to say about 'the sea peoples', one Egyptologist Wolfgang Helck recently remarked that although some things are unclear, "eins ist aber sicher: Nach den agyptischen Texten Haben wir es Nicht mit einer 'Volkerwanderung' zu tun.

Egypt in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Old Kingdom. An Introduction to the Ancient World. A comparative study of thirty city-state cultures: An investigation conducted by the Copenhagen Polis Centre.

Gods, goddesses, and images of God in ancient Israel , Ancient Egypt: A Social History. The treasure of the Oxus : With other objects from ancient Persia and India.

London: British Museum. Kulli: An exploration of ancient civilization in Asia. Durham, N. Prehistoric India to B.

Baltimore: Penguin Book. Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 5 June The archaeology of the Israelite settlement. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, From nomadism to monarchy: archaeological and historical aspects of early Israel.

Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, Simon and Schuster, Treasures from the Oxus, I. Tauris, pp. BBC History Magazine. Journal of World Prehistory.

Biological Sciences. Human Genetics. Peter Landscapes and Societies: Selected Cases. Encyclopedia of ancient Asian civilizations.

Infobase Publishing. By the s, there was some debate as to whether the term should be extended to China John Lubbock , Prehistoric Times , cited after The Athenaeum No.

Monumentality in Early Chinese Art and Architecture. Yale University Press, Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 24 September Sino-Platonic Papers Archived from the original PDF on 6 February Retrieved 21 May Philadelphia: Univ.

University of Toronto Press, Siebenbad-Verlag, University of California Press, Eckert, el.

Bronze Civilization Palmer, and M. Stampolidis eds. Peiser, T. Godart, and A. The country of Pala can be located in the Black Sea region. Sherratt eds.

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