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It was the first sample return mission of its kind. The primary mission was successfully completed on 15 January , when the sample return capsule returned to Earth.

Stardust ceased operations in March On 14 August , scientists announced the identification of possible interstellar dust particles from the Stardust capsule returned to Earth in Beginning in the s, scientists began seeking a dedicated mission to study a comet.

During the early s, several missions to study comet Halley became the first successful missions to return close-up data. Stardust was competitively selected in the fall of as a NASA Discovery Program mission of low-cost with highly focused science goals.

In planning the mission, it was expected that most of the original material from which the comet formed would still be preserved.

The primary science objectives of the mission included: [6]. The spacecraft was designed, built and operated by Lockheed Martin Astronautics as a Discovery-class mission in Denver, Colorado.

The principal investigator of the mission was Dr. Donald Brownlee from the University of Washington. The spacecraft bus measured 1.

The bus was primarily constructed with graphite fiber panels with an aluminum honeycomb support structure underneath; the entire spacecraft was covered with polycyanate, Kapton sheeting for further protection.

To maintain low costs, the spacecraft incorporated many designs and technologies used in past missions or previously developed for future missions by the Small Spacecraft Technologies Initiative SSTI.

The spacecraft featured five scientific instruments to collect data, including the Stardust Sample Collection tray, which was brought back to Earth for analysis.

The spacecraft was three-axis stabilized with eight 4. Information for spacecraft positioning was provided by a star camera using FSW to determine attitude stellar compass , an inertial measurement unit , and two sun sensors.

For communicating with the Deep Space Network , the spacecraft transmitted data across the X-band using a 0. The arrays provided a unique method of switching strings from series to parallel depending on the distance from the Sun.

A single nickel—hydrogen NiH 2 battery was also included to provide the spacecraft with power when the solar arrays received too little sunlight.

The computer on the spacecraft operated using a radiation-hardened RAD bit processor card. The system software is a form of VxWorks , an embedded operating system developed by Wind River Systems.

Comet and interstellar particles are collected in ultra low density aerogel. To collect the particles without damaging them, a silicon -based solid with a porous, sponge -like structure is used in which The aerogel was packed in an aluminium grid and fitted into a Sample Return Capsule SRC , which was to be released from the spacecraft as it passed Earth in To analyze the aerogel for interstellar dust, one million photographs will be needed to image the entirety of the sampled grains.

The images will be distributed to home computer users to aid in the study of the data using a program titled, Stardust home.

In April , NASA reported they had recovered seven particles of interstellar dust from the aerogel. Stardust was launched carrying two sets of identical pairs of square Each pair featured engravings of well over one million names of people who participated in the public outreach program by filling out internet forms available in late and mid One pair of the microchips was positioned on the spacecraft and the other was attached to the sample return capsule.

In , the spacecraft performed a course correction that would allow it to pass by Earth a second time in , to release the Sample Return Capsule for a landing in Utah in the Bonneville Salt Flats.

During the second encounter with Earth, Stardust was put into a "divert maneuver" immediately after the capsule was released. The maneuver corrected the spacecraft direction to avoid entering the atmosphere.

Under twenty kilograms of propellant remained onboard after the maneuver. On 29 January , the spacecraft was put in hibernation mode with only the solar panels and receiver active, in a 3-year heliocentric orbit that would return it to Earth vicinity on 14 January The mission extension was the first to revisit a small Solar System body and used the remaining propellant, signaling the end of the useful life for the spacecraft.

The relative velocity between the comet and the spacecraft was such that the comet actually overtook the spacecraft from behind as they traveled around the Sun.

During the flyby the spacecraft deployed the Sample Collection plate to collect dust grain samples from the coma , and took detailed pictures of the icy nucleus.

The possibility of this extension could be vital for gathering images of the impact crater which Deep Impact was unsuccessful in capturing due to dust from the impact obscuring the surface.

This investigation would provide the first look at the changes to a comet nucleus produced after a close approach to the Sun.

This mapping would help address the major questions of comet nucleus geology. The flyby mission was expected to consume almost all of the remaining fuel, signaling the end of the operability of the spacecraft.

The mission objectives included the following: [36]. These showed changes in the terrain and revealed portions of the comet never seen by Deep Impact.

After the data had been collected, no further antenna aiming was possible and the transmitter was switched off. Army Dugway Proving Ground.

Stardust lands in Utah successfully at Wikinews. Dust grains are being observed and analyzed by a volunteer team through the distributed computing project, Stardust Home.

In December , seven papers were published in the scientific journal Science , discussing initial details of the sample analysis. Among the findings are: a wide range of organic compounds , including two that contain biologically usable nitrogen ; indigenous aliphatic hydrocarbons with longer chain lengths than those observed in the diffuse interstellar medium ; abundant amorphous silicates in addition to crystalline silicates such as olivine and pyroxene , proving consistency with the mixing of Solar System and interstellar matter, previously deduced spectroscopically from ground observations; [47] hydrous silicates and carbonate minerals were found to be absent, suggesting a lack of aqueous processing of the cometary dust; limited pure carbon CHON [ clarification needed ] was also found in the samples returned; methylamine and ethylamine was found in the aerogel but was not associated with specific particles.

In , Dr. Andrew Westphal announced that Stardust home volunteer Bruce Hudson found a track labeled "I,1,30" among the many images of the aerogel that may contain an interstellar dust grain.

Hudson named his discovery "Orion". In April , scientists from the University of Arizona discovered evidence for the presence of liquid water in comet Wild 2.

They have found iron and copper sulfide minerals that must have formed in the presence of water. The discovery shatters the existing paradigm that comets never get warm enough to melt their icy bulk.

Stardust comet samples "visible to the naked eye" at Wikinews. The return capsule is displayed in sample collection mode, alongside a sample of the aerogel used to collect samples.

The comet samples show that the outer regions of the early Solar System were not isolated and were not a refuge where interstellar materials could commonly survive.

Glycine has been detected in meteorites before and there are also observations in interstellar gas clouds, but the Stardust find is described as a first in cometary material.

Isotope analysis indicates that the Late Heavy Bombardment included cometary impacts after the Earth coalesced but before life evolved.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fourth mission of the Discovery program; sample return from the periodic comet Wild 2.

Discovery program. Images of the spacecraft. The solar arrays being checked in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. Main article: Annefrank. Spaceflight portal.

February Planetary Data System. Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 16 January New Scientist. Archived from the original on 28 March Retrieved 14 August AP News.

Bibcode : Sci Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 14 February Journal of Geophysical Research. Bibcode : JGRE.. Yvaine becomes tired, so Tristan chains her to a tree and promises to bring food.

In his absence, a unicorn releases her, but unwittingly takes her to Lamia's inn. Tristan discovers Yvaine gone, but the stars whisper that she is in danger, telling him to get on a passing coach, which happens to be Primus'.

They stop at the inn, interrupting Lamia's attempt to kill Yvaine. Lamia kills Primus, but Tristan and Yvaine use the Babylon candle to escape into the clouds, where they are captured by pirates in a flying ship.

Septimus discovers that as the last surviving son having poisoned Tertius earlier , he needs only find the stone to claim the throne.

He learns it is in the possession of the fallen star and realizes that the heart of a star grants immortality. After leaving Captain Shakespeare's ship, Tristan and Yvaine confess their love for one another and spend the night together at an inn at the marketplace.

Come morning, Tristan leaves Yvaine sleeping and goes to Wall with a lock of her hair, to tell Victoria he will not marry her, having fallen in love with Yvaine.

When the lock turns to stardust, he realizes Yvaine will die if she crosses the wall, and rushes back to save her. Yvaine finds Tristan gone, and—thinking he has abandoned her for Victoria—despondently walks toward the wall.

Lamia kills Sal, and captures Una and Yvaine, taking them to the witches' manor. Septimus and Tristan both pursue Lamia, agreeing to work together for the time being.

Barging into the castle, Septimus recognizes Una as his long-lost sister and she informs Tristan that she is his mother.

Septimus and Tristan kill two of the witches, but Lamia uses a voodoo doll to kill Septimus. Lamia is about to finish Tristan off, when she appears to break down over the loss of her sisters.

Lamia frees Yvaine, but her feigned defeat was a ruse, and she tries to kill them both. As Tristan and Yvaine embrace, their love allows her to shine once again, vaporising Lamia.

Tristan retrieves the stone from Yvaine. Una explains that, as her son, Tristan is the last male heir of Stormhold. He becomes king with Yvaine as his queen while Dunstan and Una are reunited.

After eighty years of ruling Stormhold, they use a Babylon candle to ascend to the sky, where they live together as stars. It was first published by DC Comics in as a prestige format four-issue comic mini-series.

Encouraged by publisher Avon, Gaiman decided to adapt Stardust and in it was republished as a conventional novel in hardback without illustrations.

Gaiman has compared the story to a fantasy version of the romantic comedy film It Happened One Night. In Stardust was optioned for a film adaptation by Bob Weinstein at Miramax.

Gaiman wrote a treatment, then Ehren Kruger wrote a treatment. For years Gaiman refused offers to develop the film. Having seen the disappointing results of the hands-off approach taken by Alan Moore , Gaiman preferred to retain control and to influence the development of the film.

Eventually, discussions about a film version of Stardust took place between Gaiman, director Terry Gilliam and producer Matthew Vaughn. Gilliam dropped out following his involvement with The Brothers Grimm and not wanting to do another fairy tale.

Vaughn left to produce Layer Cake but became the director for the first time on that project. The adapted screenplay was written by Vaughn and screenwriter Jane Goldman , who had been recommended by Gaiman.

With Gaiman's blessing given to the screenwriters, the movie version has a greater element of whimsy and humour. Gaiman did not want people to go to the theatre to see a film that attempted, but failed, to be completely loyal to the book.

This led him to acknowledge that the film would have to compress the novel, leaving out portions of the work. Budgetary concerns also factored into the adaptation, even with the level of technology.

Vaughn and Goldman decided that the witches needed names, as in the book they were collectively the Lilim. They chose names from classical sources which coincidentally included names found in Gaiman's The Books of Magic Empusa and Neverwhere Lamia.

On the film's differences from the novel, Gaiman commented: "I sort of feel like my grounding in comics was actually very useful because in my head, that's just the Earth-Two version of Stardust.

And I get people who come to the book from having loved the movie who are really disappointed at some of the stuff that isn't there that Matthew brought.

Production began in the United Kingdom and Iceland in April , with the majority of filming taking place in the UK. Vaughn insisted on an unknown actor for the part of Tristan.

Vaughn had Cox audition alongside the prospective leading actresses until the female lead was cast. Sarah Michelle Gellar was offered the role of Yvaine but turned it down, not wanting to be apart from husband Freddie Prinze Jr.

The role of Quintus was originally given to comedian Noel Fielding , but due to health issues he had to drop out and was replaced by another comedian Adam Buxton.

The production started filming in mid-April , with principal photography taking place at Pinewood Studios in London.

Location filming started in Wester Ross , in the Scottish Highlands [22] followed immediately by filming on the Isle of Skye.

The scene where Prince Septimus consults the soothsayer was shot in Iceland. Several weeks of location filming also took place in the woods and the Golden Valley near Ashridge Business school , Hertfordshire in the village of Little Gaddesden in June and July.

Some of the scenes requiring wide open spaces for riding and coach scenes were filmed at Bicester Airfield in Oxfordshire.

Another film location was on Elm Hill in Norwich. The Briton's Arms tea house became the Slaughtered Prince public house. The design of the witches' lair was inspired by the Hall of Mirrors in the palace of Versaille, France, but with black instead of white and silver instead of gold.

Filming was finished by 13 July The pirate skyship set was shot against a degree greenscreen , required fully CG backgrounds and digital extending the size and the bow of the ship.

Some distance shots of ship were entirely CG. Yvaine required a star glow effect for more than eighty shots. The age transformation of Lamia was achieve using composite of multiple motion control plates, including a pass in the full prosthetic makeup, the transformed youthful Lamia, and a pass where the hair was pulled through a dummy head, played in reverse to give the appearance of hair growing, composited and blended with a procedural glow effect.

Twenty feet of The Wall was built on location as a practical effect and extended into the distance using digital painting.

VFX were completed by February Stardust was well received by test audiences. Producer Lorenzo di Bonaventura was surprised when the film was well received across all demographics, despite the film not having been designed for everyone, expecting instead for parts of the audience to feel the film was not for them.

In their feedback audiences agreed it was not a fairy tale, giving various descriptions of it, such as an adventure with magical elements.

Stardust was released on 10 August in the United States in 2, theatres, opening at No. The critics' consensus reads: "A faithful interpretation that captures the spirit of whimsy, action, and off-kilter humor of Neil Gaiman, Stardust juggles multiple genres and tones to create a fantastical experience.

Roger Ebert called it a "fun" movie and gave it a positive rating of 2. He says the romance is the least interesting part of the film, but the sweep of the story and the humor keep the film together.

Holden says Danes is miscast, and describes De Niro's performance as "either a piece of inspired madcap fun or an excruciating embarrassment. Dwyer criticized the cameos of Gervais and De Niro as unsubtle, jarring, and self-indulgent, and said Danes was miscast.

He praised Pfeiffer, saying she gave the film "the kiss of life". Philip French of The Observer said the film "fails on every level" and referring to a scene with Robert De Niro said it "plumbs new depths of camp embarrassment".

Associated Press film critic David Germain put the film in 7th place on his list of the 10 best films of Vaughn had an idea for Stardust 2 but the first film was not financially successful enough.

On the 10th Anniversary of the film's release Vanity Fair interviewed Charlie Cox, who is frequently recognized by fans for the role early in his career.

Cox is unsure why the film is so popular but notes that Vaughn wanted to make a film with broad appeal, and Goldman did a great job cutting out extraneous detail, and focusing on the heart of the story.

Vanity Fair notes that the film gets replayed frequently in syndication and describes it as "endlessly likable", with a great cast, special effects that aren't too dated, and "the best adaptation of Gaiman's work, capturing his unique blend of darkness and whimsy perfectly.

Vaughn was critical of the marketing of the film, saying it had been promoted like it was Lord of the Rings when it had been much more influenced by The Princess Bride.

He noted that although the film didn't do well in cinemas it became an "evergreen title" on DVD. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Theatrical release poster. Jane Goldman Matthew Vaughn. Marv Films Ingenious Film Partners. Release date. Running time.

British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 3 December Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 31 October The Numbers.

World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 1 February Den of Geek. Archived from the original on 19 October UGO: Underground Online.

Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 29 April Los Angeles Times.

stardust Übersetzung, Englisch - Deutsch Wörterbuch, Siehe auch 'starburst',star',​stratus',starstruck', biespiele, konjugation. Übersetzung für 'stardust' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Stardust (engl. Sternenstaub) bezeichnet: Stardust (Sonde), eine NASA-​Raumsonde; Star Dust Angie Stardust (–), deutsch-amerikanische Schauspielerin und Sängerin; Cody Rhodes (* ), US-amerikanischer Wrestler. Stardust Definition: dusty material found between the stars | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele. Bereits im All ist die Sonde Stardust, in zwei Jahren folgt dann Deep Impact. (Quelle: ); Im Gegensatz zu Moorings, die ihre Seite neben Englisch und.

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Tristran expresses regret for chaining Yvaine up. The star reveals that while Tristran no longer intends to force her to accompany him to Wall, the custom of her people dictates that, because he has saved her life, she is nonetheless obliged to follow him.

Upon parting company with the ship and its crew, Tristran and Yvaine set off for Wall, and, after several adventures, encounter Madam Semele. Because of the witch-queen's curse, Madam Semele is unable to see Yvaine, but she agrees to transport Tristran the rest of the way to Wall, as she is on her way to the market herself.

Tristran obtains a promise from Madam Semele that he will not be harmed, will receive board and lodging, and will arrive at Wall in the same manner and condition in which he departed.

This promise, however, does not prevent her from transforming him into a dormouse for the duration of the journey.

The star also rides on Madam Semele's wagon, unbeknownst to the old woman. Septimus seeks revenge on the witch-queen for killing Primus, but is himself killed by his intended victim, without ever reclaiming the topaz.

Tristran now returned to his human form , Yvaine, Madam Semele and the witch-queen all arrive at the Wall market.

Tristran leaves Yvaine and crosses back into Wall, to tell Victoria that he has returned with the star.

Meanwhile, Yvaine realises she has fallen in love with Tristran and, if he fulfills his promise to bring her to Victoria, she will not only lose him to another woman, but upon leaving Faerie, will be transformed into a piece of rock.

Upon meeting Tristran, a dismayed Victoria who is a month or two pregnant but does not yet know it reveals she is already engaged to Monday, Tristran's old employer, and that she never believed that Tristran would fulfill his promise.

She regretfully tells Tristran that she will keep her promise and marry him. Tristran, not wishing to force Victoria to marry him against her will, reminds her the promise wasn't to marry him, it was to give him anything he desired, and that he desires that she marry her own love, Monday.

Tristran returns to Yvaine at the fair. She is delighted to learn that Victoria is to be married to someone else, and Tristran reveals that he returns her love for him.

Una informs Madam Semele that she will soon be free, as her enslavement ends when the moon loses her child Yvaine , if it happens in a week when two Mondays come together the marriage of Victoria and Monday.

The silver chain that binds Una finally fades away, and she demands payment for her services, which Madam Semele must give on pain of losing her powers.

Una seeks out Tristran and Yvaine and reveals her true identity as Lady Una, only daughter of the Eighty-First Lord of Stormhold, and Tristran's mother, and thus Tristran is rightfully the last male heir of Stormhold.

She instructs Tristran to ask Yvaine for the topaz she carries, and through its magic the power of Stormhold passes to Tristran. However he declines to immediately return to Stormhold, leaving Lady Una to reign in his stead while he and Yvaine travel around Faerie.

But before Yvaine and Tristran can set off on their journey, an impossibly aged hag turns up wishing to speak to Yvaine. She reveals herself as the witch-queen, but Yvaine, no longer fearful, tells her the good news that she has given her heart to Tristran.

The witch-queen claims she'd have done better to give it to the Lillim, since Tristran is sure to break it as all men do.

The witch-queen then leaves them forever, fearful of the cruelty her sisters will inflict upon her for failing.

Many years later, Tristran and Yvaine finally return to Stormhold, and Tristran assumes his duties as the Lord of Stormhold. When he eventually grows old and dies, Yvaine continues to reign as the immortal ruler of Stormhold.

Stardust was originally conceived by Gaiman and Vess as a "story book with pictures", created by both, to be published by American company DC Comics.

During an interview to be included in the audio book, Neil Gaiman explained how one day while driving he had seen a wall on the side of the road and had conceived the idea of Faerie being behind the wall.

This sparked an idea in Gaiman's head about an American novelist who moved to England where he would find out about this wall; at this time, the book was to be called Wall.

Soon afterwards, Gaiman was nominated for a literary award, which he won, and at a celebratory party for the award he saw a shooting star and immediately came up with the idea of Stardust.

Gaiman dragged Vess out of a party that he was at and outlined the plot to him and Vess agreed to do the illustrations. Initially, Stardust was released in as a prestige format four-issue comic mini-series.

Stardust came out once a month in a square-bound, high-gloss booklet with high grade paper, high quality color and no advertisements. Gaiman and Vess originally intended the story to be released complete, as a single book, which would better reproduce the painted illustrations of Vess and be a "story book" for all ages, and a release in this format was made in The hardback edition is quarter-bound in faux leather with the author's names, title and several stars inlaid in foil.

It also has reproductions of the serialized version's covers and many sketches by Vess. The trade paperback has a very different cover design and illustrations by Vess, and has subsequently been reprinted with another different cover design.

Gaiman retains the copyright to the text and in decided, encouraged by publisher Avon , to publish Stardust as a conventional novel in hardback without illustrations.

There was also a subsequent UK hardcover edition, from Hodder Headline. The book also proved popular with readers of the "romance" genre, although it is generally considered part of the fantasy genre.

Thus the paperback publication was originally given three different covers which when placed side by side had one background image and a different primary image including a handsome man holding a woman in a passionate embrace, although this cover concept was never used.

In , Charles Vess' Green Man Press produced a portfolio as a benefit for Charles Vess' wife Karen, injured in a car accident, titled A Fall of Stardust , which contained two chapbooks and a series of art plates.

Several plates were coloured by Eric Olive. Todd Klein worked with Charles Vess to create the unique logo. In July , a new hardcover edition was published by DC's Vertigo imprint, containing approximately fifty pages of new material, including new artwork and information on the production of the book.

Towards the end of the novel, it is mentioned that Tristran was rumoured to have been instrumental in breaking the power of the Unseelie Court.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Novel by Neil Gaiman. For the movie based on this novel, see Stardust film. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 22 April New York, Pantheon Books. Accessed Jan. Retrieved 29 October Worlds Without End. Retrieved 5 August Novels portal.

Neil Gaiman bibliography. Categories : British novels fantasy novels Fantasy comics British fantasy novels Vertigo titles Novels by Neil Gaiman High fantasy novels British novels adapted into films Witchcraft in written fiction.

Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata EngvarB from September Use dmy dates from September Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references.

Namespaces Article Talk. To maintain low costs, the spacecraft incorporated many designs and technologies used in past missions or previously developed for future missions by the Small Spacecraft Technologies Initiative SSTI.

The spacecraft featured five scientific instruments to collect data, including the Stardust Sample Collection tray, which was brought back to Earth for analysis.

The spacecraft was three-axis stabilized with eight 4. Information for spacecraft positioning was provided by a star camera using FSW to determine attitude stellar compass , an inertial measurement unit , and two sun sensors.

For communicating with the Deep Space Network , the spacecraft transmitted data across the X-band using a 0. The arrays provided a unique method of switching strings from series to parallel depending on the distance from the Sun.

A single nickel—hydrogen NiH 2 battery was also included to provide the spacecraft with power when the solar arrays received too little sunlight. The computer on the spacecraft operated using a radiation-hardened RAD bit processor card.

The system software is a form of VxWorks , an embedded operating system developed by Wind River Systems. Comet and interstellar particles are collected in ultra low density aerogel.

To collect the particles without damaging them, a silicon -based solid with a porous, sponge -like structure is used in which The aerogel was packed in an aluminium grid and fitted into a Sample Return Capsule SRC , which was to be released from the spacecraft as it passed Earth in To analyze the aerogel for interstellar dust, one million photographs will be needed to image the entirety of the sampled grains.

The images will be distributed to home computer users to aid in the study of the data using a program titled, Stardust home.

In April , NASA reported they had recovered seven particles of interstellar dust from the aerogel. Stardust was launched carrying two sets of identical pairs of square Each pair featured engravings of well over one million names of people who participated in the public outreach program by filling out internet forms available in late and mid One pair of the microchips was positioned on the spacecraft and the other was attached to the sample return capsule.

In , the spacecraft performed a course correction that would allow it to pass by Earth a second time in , to release the Sample Return Capsule for a landing in Utah in the Bonneville Salt Flats.

During the second encounter with Earth, Stardust was put into a "divert maneuver" immediately after the capsule was released.

The maneuver corrected the spacecraft direction to avoid entering the atmosphere. Under twenty kilograms of propellant remained onboard after the maneuver.

On 29 January , the spacecraft was put in hibernation mode with only the solar panels and receiver active, in a 3-year heliocentric orbit that would return it to Earth vicinity on 14 January The mission extension was the first to revisit a small Solar System body and used the remaining propellant, signaling the end of the useful life for the spacecraft.

The relative velocity between the comet and the spacecraft was such that the comet actually overtook the spacecraft from behind as they traveled around the Sun.

During the flyby the spacecraft deployed the Sample Collection plate to collect dust grain samples from the coma , and took detailed pictures of the icy nucleus.

The possibility of this extension could be vital for gathering images of the impact crater which Deep Impact was unsuccessful in capturing due to dust from the impact obscuring the surface.

This investigation would provide the first look at the changes to a comet nucleus produced after a close approach to the Sun. This mapping would help address the major questions of comet nucleus geology.

The flyby mission was expected to consume almost all of the remaining fuel, signaling the end of the operability of the spacecraft.

The mission objectives included the following: [36]. These showed changes in the terrain and revealed portions of the comet never seen by Deep Impact.

After the data had been collected, no further antenna aiming was possible and the transmitter was switched off. Army Dugway Proving Ground.

Stardust lands in Utah successfully at Wikinews. Dust grains are being observed and analyzed by a volunteer team through the distributed computing project, Stardust Home.

In December , seven papers were published in the scientific journal Science , discussing initial details of the sample analysis.

Among the findings are: a wide range of organic compounds , including two that contain biologically usable nitrogen ; indigenous aliphatic hydrocarbons with longer chain lengths than those observed in the diffuse interstellar medium ; abundant amorphous silicates in addition to crystalline silicates such as olivine and pyroxene , proving consistency with the mixing of Solar System and interstellar matter, previously deduced spectroscopically from ground observations; [47] hydrous silicates and carbonate minerals were found to be absent, suggesting a lack of aqueous processing of the cometary dust; limited pure carbon CHON [ clarification needed ] was also found in the samples returned; methylamine and ethylamine was found in the aerogel but was not associated with specific particles.

In , Dr. Andrew Westphal announced that Stardust home volunteer Bruce Hudson found a track labeled "I,1,30" among the many images of the aerogel that may contain an interstellar dust grain.

Hudson named his discovery "Orion". In April , scientists from the University of Arizona discovered evidence for the presence of liquid water in comet Wild 2.

They have found iron and copper sulfide minerals that must have formed in the presence of water. The discovery shatters the existing paradigm that comets never get warm enough to melt their icy bulk.

Stardust comet samples "visible to the naked eye" at Wikinews. The return capsule is displayed in sample collection mode, alongside a sample of the aerogel used to collect samples.

The comet samples show that the outer regions of the early Solar System were not isolated and were not a refuge where interstellar materials could commonly survive.

Glycine has been detected in meteorites before and there are also observations in interstellar gas clouds, but the Stardust find is described as a first in cometary material.

Isotope analysis indicates that the Late Heavy Bombardment included cometary impacts after the Earth coalesced but before life evolved.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fourth mission of the Discovery program; sample return from the periodic comet Wild 2.

Discovery program. Images of the spacecraft. The solar arrays being checked in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility.

Main article: Annefrank. Spaceflight portal. February Planetary Data System. Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 16 January New Scientist.

Archived from the original on 28 March Retrieved 14 August AP News. Bibcode : Sci Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 14 February Journal of Geophysical Research.

Bibcode : JGRE.. Retrieved 19 February Archived from the original on 31 January Archived from the original on 29 January The Stardust solar array.

Osaka, Japan. Archived from the original on 27 January Archived PDF from the original on 27 June Archived from the original on 17 February Archived from the original on 25 March January Bibcode : PDSS.

Evelyn Parker. Data in the simulation agrees with readings by the airborne observation team monitoring the reentry, available at "Stardust Capsule Reentry".

Stan Atamanchuk.

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