Ariabian Nights Exploring the Narrative Culture of the Muslim World
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The first known reference to the Nights is a 9th-century fragment. By the 20th century, Western scholars had agreed that the Nights is a composite work consisting of popular stories originally transmitted orally and developed during several centuries, with material added somewhat haphazardly at different periods and places.
Several layers in the work, including one originating in Baghdad and one larger and later, written in Egypt, were distinguished in by August Müller.
Most of the tales best known in the West—primarily those of Aladdin, Ali Baba, and Sindbad—were much later additions to the original corpus. His translation remained standard until the midth century, parts even being retranslated into Arabic.
The Arabic text was first published in full at Calcutta Kolkata , 4 vol. The source for most later translations, however, was the so-called Vulgate text, an Egyptian recension published at Bulaq , Cairo , in , and several times reprinted.
Meanwhile, French and English continuations, versions, or editions of Galland had added stories from oral and manuscript sources, collected, with others, in the Breslau edition, 5 vol.
Later translations followed the Bulaq text with varying fullness and accuracy. The Thousand and One Nights. Article Media. Info Print Cite.
Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Ariabian Nights VideoWill Smith - Arabian Nights (2019) (From \ Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning"the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a Black Jack Punkte and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds. Edit page. Retrieved October 2, If necessary, please contact our support Go Karts And Arcade if you need further assistance. So a chain of anomalies is set up. Harun then gives Ja'far three more days to find Skat Online Ohne Anmelden guilty slave. The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of Best Iphone 5 Games of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Islamic ReviewDecpp. Thousand Nights and One Night. All Multiplayer. Each evening she tells a story, leaving it incomplete and promising to finish Online Casino Kostenlos Spielen Ohne Anmeldung the following night. Burton's original 10 volumes were followed by a further six Jackpot Party Casino Free Slots in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps Skat Tipps entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Nightwhich were printed between and In The Arabian Nights in Historical Context. Between East and West. ed. by Saree Makdisi and Felicity Nussbaum. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. − Arabian Nights spielen - Hier auf tranasjazzoblues.se kannst du gratis, umsonst & ohne Anmeldung oder Download kostenlose online Spiele. Arabian Nights. Arabian Nights Bedouin Camp Wadi Rum Protected Area, Ramm, Wadi Rum, Jordanien, - AUF DER KARTE. The image symbolises the world-famous legend of One Thousand and One Nights and stands for the persuasion of storytelling. It pays tribute to Sheherazade who. Zeiten und Kontinente verschmelzen miteinander, verschwimmen und eröffnen den Raum für diese orientalische Kollektion: Arabian Nights by Kilian.
The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain.
The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure.
In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true.
Ja'afar, disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.
In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place. This is an early example of reverse causation.
In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis ,  alongside the " Sindibad " story cycle.
Leitwortstil is "the purposeful repetition of words" in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story.
The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole. Another technique used in the One Thousand and One Nights is thematic patterning , which is:.
In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common.
Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.
In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.
The Nights contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with penis size.
The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the One Thousand and One Nights.
Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers.
An example of the murder mystery  and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists  and detective fiction elements  was " The Three Apples ", also known as Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula 'The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman'.
In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman.
Harun gives his vizier, Ja'far , three days to find the culprit or be executed. At the end of three days, when Ja'far is about to be executed for his failure, two men come forward, both claiming to be the murderer.
As they tell their story it transpires that, although the younger of them, the woman's husband, was responsible for her death, some of the blame attaches to a slave, who had taken one of the apples mentioned in the title and caused the woman's murder.
Harun then gives Ja'far three more days to find the guilty slave. When he yet again fails to find the culprit, and bids his family goodbye before his execution, he discovers by chance his daughter has the apple, which she obtained from Ja'far's own slave, Rayhan.
Thus the mystery is solved. Another Nights tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction.
The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple.
The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there.
This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him.
The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died.
Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic fiction and horror fiction , as well as modern paranormal fiction. Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature.
Horror fiction elements are also found in "The City of Brass" tale, which revolves around a ghost town. The horrific nature of Scheherazade 's situation is magnified in Stephen King 's Misery , in which the protagonist is forced to write a novel to keep his captor from torturing and killing him.
The influence of the Nights on modern horror fiction is certainly discernible in the work of H. As a child, he was fascinated by the adventures recounted in the book, and he attributes some of his creations to his love of the Nights.
Several stories within the One Thousand and One Nights feature early science fiction elements. One example is "The Adventures of Bulukiya", where the protagonist Bulukiya's quest for the herb of immortality leads him to explore the seas, journey to Paradise and to Hell , and travel across the cosmos to different worlds much larger than his own world, anticipating elements of galactic science fiction;  along the way, he encounters societies of jinn ,  mermaids , talking serpents , talking trees, and other forms of life.
In another Nights tale, "Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman", the protagonist Abdullah the Fisherman gains the ability to breathe underwater and discovers an underwater society that is portrayed as an inverted reflection of society on land, in that the underwater society follows a form of primitive communism where concepts like money and clothing do not exist.
Other Arabian Nights tales also depict Amazon societies dominated by women, lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them.
It is often deployed by stories' narrators to provide detailed descriptions, usually of the beauty of characters. Characters also occasionally quote or speak in verse in certain settings.
The uses include but are not limited to:. In a typical example, expressing feelings of happiness to oneself from Night , Prince Qamar Al-Zaman, standing outside the castle, wants to inform Queen Bodour of his arrival.
When she opens it and sees the ring, joy conquers her, and out of happiness she chants this poem: .
Long, long have I bewailed the sev'rance of our loves, With tears that from my lids streamed down like burning rain And vowed that, if the days deign reunite us two, My lips should never speak of severance again: Joy hath o'erwhelmed me so that, for the very stress Of that which gladdens me to weeping I am fain.
Tears are become to you a habit, O my eyes, So that ye weep as well for gladness as for pain. The influence of the versions of The Nights on world literature is immense.
Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the collection by name in their own works. Yeats , H. Lovecraft , Marcel Proust , A.
Byatt and Angela Carter. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin , Sinbad and Ali Baba.
Part of its popularity may have sprung from improved standards of historical and geographical knowledge. The marvelous beings and events typical of fairy tales seem less incredible if they are set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this process culminates in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places.
Several elements from Arabian mythology are now common in modern fantasy , such as genies , bahamuts , magic carpets , magic lamps, etc.
When L. Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go.
In , the International Astronomical Union IAU began naming features on Saturn 's moon Enceladus after characters and places in Burton 's translation  because "its surface is so strange and mysterious that it was given the Arabian Nights as a name bank, linking fantasy landscape with a literary fantasy.
There is little evidence that the Nights was particularly treasured in the Arab world. It is rarely mentioned in lists of popular literature and few preth-century manuscripts of the collection exist.
According to Robert Irwin, "Even today, with the exception of certain writers and academics, the Nights is regarded with disdain in the Arabic world.
Its stories are regularly denounced as vulgar, improbable, childish and, above all, badly written. Idries Shah finds the Abjad numerical equivalent of the Arabic title, alf layla wa layla , in the Arabic phrase umm el quissa , meaning "mother of records.
On a more popular level, film and TV adaptations based on stories like Sinbad and Aladdin enjoyed long lasting popularity in Arabic speaking countries.
Although the first known translation into a European language only appeared in , it is possible that the Nights began exerting its influence on Western culture much earlier.
Knowledge of the work, direct or indirect, apparently spread beyond Spain. The modern fame of the Nights derives from the first known European translation by Antoine Galland , which appeared in According to Robert Irwin , Galland "played so large a part in discovering the tales, in popularizing them in Europe and in shaping what would come to be regarded as the canonical collection that, at some risk of hyperbole and paradox, he has been called the real author of the Nights.
This fashion began with the publication of Madame d'Aulnoy 's Histoire d'Hypolite in D'Aulnoy's book has a remarkably similar structure to the Nights , with the tales told by a female narrator.
Galland's version provoked a spate of pseudo-Oriental imitations. At the same time, some French writers began to parody the style and concoct far-fetched stories in superficially Oriental settings.
They often contained veiled allusions to contemporary French society. The most famous example is Voltaire 's Zadig , an attack on religious bigotry set against a vague pre-Islamic Middle Eastern background.
The Polish nobleman Jan Potocki 's novel Saragossa Manuscript begun owes a deep debt to the Nights with its Oriental flavour and labyrinthine series of embedded tales.
The work was included on a price-list of books on theology, history, and cartography, which was sent by the Scottish bookseller Andrew Millar then an apprentice to a Presbyterian minister.
This is illustrative of the title's widespread popularity and availability in the s. The Nights continued to be a favourite book of many British authors of the Romantic and Victorian eras.
According to A. Byatt , "In British Romantic poetry the Arabian Nights stood for the wonderful against the mundane, the imaginative against the prosaically and reductively rational.
Wordsworth and Tennyson also wrote about their childhood reading of the tales in their poetry. While the king is uncertain—except in the case of the elephants carrying the world on the back of the turtle—that these mysteries are real, they are actual modern events that occurred in various places during, or before, Poe's lifetime.
The story ends with the king in such disgust at the tale Scheherazade has just woven, that he has her executed the very next day.
Another important literary figure, the Irish poet W. Yeats was also fascinated by the Arabian Nights, when he wrote in his prose book, A Vision an autobiographical poem, titled The Gift of Harun Al-Rashid ,  in relation to his joint experiments with his wife Georgie Hyde-Lees , with Automatic writing.
The automatic writing, is a technique used by many occultists in order to discern messages from the subconscious mind or from other spiritual beings, when the hand moves a pencil or a pen, writing only on a simple sheet of paper and when the person's eyes are shut.
Also, the gifted and talented wife, is playing in Yeats's poem as "a gift" herself, given only allegedly by the caliph to the Christian and Byzantine philosopher Qusta Ibn Luqa , who acts in the poem as a personification of W.
In July he was asked by Louis Lambert, while in a tour in the United States, which six books satisfied him most.
The list that he gave placed the Arabian Nights, secondary only to William Shakespeare's works. The critic Robert Irwin singles out the two versions of The Thief of Baghdad version directed by Raoul Walsh; version produced by Alexander Korda and Pier Paolo Pasolini 's Il fiore delle Mille e una notte as ranking "high among the masterpieces of world cinema.
UPA , an American animation studio, produced an animated feature version of Arabian Nights , featuring the cartoon character Mr.
The animated feature film, One Thousand and One Arabian Nights , produced in Japan and directed by Osamu Tezuka and Eichii Yamamoto, featured psychedelic imagery and sounds, and erotic material intended for adults.
Shabnam Rezaei and Aly Jetha created, and the Vancouver-based Big Bad Boo Studios produced Nights , an animated television series for children, which launched on Teletoon and airs in 80 countries around the world, including Discovery Kids Asia.
Others artists include John D. Heath Robinson and Arthur Szyk Harun ar-Rashid , a leading character of the Nights. William Harvey , The Story of the Fisherman , —40, woodcut.
Friedrich Gross , ante , woodcut. Frank Brangwyn , Story of Abon-Hassan the Wag "He found himself upon the royal couch" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of the Merchant "Sheherezade telling the stories" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of Ansal-Wajooodaud, Rose-in-Bloom "The daughter of a Visier sat at a lattice window" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of Gulnare "The merchant uncovered her face" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of Beder Basim "Whereupon it became eared corn" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard. Frank Brangwyn , Story of Abdalla "Abdalla of the sea sat in the water, near the shore" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of Mahomed Ali "He sat his boat afloat with them" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard. Frank Brangwyn , Story of the City of Brass "They ceased not to ascend by that ladder" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Collection of Middle Eastern folk stories. Play media. Novels portal. Encyclopaedia of Islam 3rd ed.
The Arabian Nights in Transnational Perspective. Wayne State University Press. Pellat Encyclopaedia Iranica. Lyons and Ursula Lyons Penguin Classics, , vol.
Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. Bosworth; E. Heinrichs eds. Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. Retrieved on The Nandakaprakarana attributed to Vasubhaga, a Comparative Study.
University of Toronto Thesis. Les entretiensde Nang Tantrai. Bibliotheca Javaneca No. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. II, pp. Josef W. However, it remains far from clear what the connection is between this fragment of the early text and the Nights stories as they have survived in later and fuller manuscripts; nor how the Syrian manuscripts related to later Egyptian versions.
Al-Rabita Press, Baghdad, Islamic Review , Dec , pp. The Arabian nights: a companion. Sheherazade through the looking glass: the metamorphosis of the Thousand and One Nights.
Retrieved 19 March Story-telling techniques in the Arabian nights. Also in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, v.
Translation in the contact zone: Antoine Galland's Mille et une nuits: contes arabes. In Makdisi, Saree and Felicity Nussbaum eds.
The Arabian nights encyclopedia, Volume 1. Cambridge UP, Arabian Nights' Entertainments. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 2 July The Arabian Nights: A Companion. Tauris Parke Paperbacks Kindle edition. Ref: Arabian Nights Encyclopedia. Tauris , p. Thousand Nights and One Night.
Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved October 2, Boyer and Kenneth J. The Arabic text was first published in full at Calcutta Kolkata , 4 vol.
The source for most later translations, however, was the so-called Vulgate text, an Egyptian recension published at Bulaq , Cairo , in , and several times reprinted.
Meanwhile, French and English continuations, versions, or editions of Galland had added stories from oral and manuscript sources, collected, with others, in the Breslau edition, 5 vol.
Later translations followed the Bulaq text with varying fullness and accuracy. The Thousand and One Nights. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback.
Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
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